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ထႅမ်းပလဵတ်ႉ:Inflation/doc

လုၵ်ႉတီႈ ဝီႇၶီႇၽီးတီးယႃး ဢၼ်လွတ်ႈလႅဝ်းထၢင်ႇႁၢင်ႈ ၼၼ်ႉမႃး

This template calculates inflation based on several inflation index data sets. The template uses an identification code for an inflation index (usually a country code), an original value, an original start_year and either a specific reference end_year or by default the latest currently available end year,[1] and calculates the equivalent value from historical economic changes between the original and reference years. For example, this template calls the United States inflation table located in the sub-template Template:Inflation/US/dataset to perform the U.S. calculation.

Aside from a convenient way to calculate values from different specified time periods, this template allows a regularly automatically updated calculation of value based on the most recent available inflation data. Whenever inflation tables are updated, potentially annually, all articles using this template have their displayed values updated accordingly.

လွင်ႈၸႂ်ႉတိုဝ်း[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

{{Inflation|index|value|start_year}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|end_year}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=c}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=eq}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=eq|cursign=X}}

The supported countries are listed below, with their index and available data periods:

index Country start_year minimum end_year maximum
AR Argentina[2] 1864 2020
AT Austria[3] 1440 2018
AU Australia[4] 1850 2018
AU-road Australia [...?][5] 1998 2018
BD Bangladesh[6] 1986 2022
BE Belgium[7] 1399 2020
BR Brazil[8] 1820 2020
CA Canada[9] 1688 2021
CH Switzerland[10] 1501 2021
CL Chile[11] 1661 2020
CN China[12] 961 2019
DE Germany[13][ႁဵင်းၵွင်ႉဢၼ်တၢႆ] 1500 2021
DK Denmark[14] 1502 2007
EG Egypt[15] 1915 2018
ES Spain[16] 1276 2022
EU Euro (European Union)[17] 1996 2021
FI Finland[18] 1914 2007
FR France[19] 1262 2020
GR Greece[20] 1833 2007
HK Hong Kong[21] 1947 2020
ID Indonesia[22] 1820 2007
IL Israel[23] 1951 2021
IN India[24] 1595 2023
IR Iran[25] 1315 1398
IS Iceland[26] 1849 2020
IT Italy[27] 1326 2020
JP Japan[28] 1868 2019
MX Mexico[29] 1525 2007
NL Netherlands[30] 1450 2016
NO Norway[31] 1492 2017
NZ New Zealand[32] 1862 2021
PE Peru[33] 1564 2017
PH Philippines[34] 1899 2021
PK Pakistan[35] 1960 2021
PL Poland[36] 1409 2021
PT Portugal[37] 1672 2007
RU Russia[38] 1548 2007
SE Sweden[39] 1290 2009
SG Singapore[40] 1961 2022
TH Thailand[41] 1820 2020
TR Turkey[42] 1585 2021
TW Taiwan[43] 1903 2021
UK United Kingdom[44] 1209 2021
UK-GDP United Kingdom GDP deflator[45] 1700 2019
US United States[46] 1634 2022
US-GDP United States GDP deflator[47] 1790 2021
ZAR South Africa[48] 1652 2018
KRW South Korea[49] 1906 2017

ပႃႇရႃႇမီႇတႃႇ[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

  • |index= (parameter 1), required, an index code for one of several available inflation indexes.
  • |value= (parameter 2), required, original price or value from which to base the inflation calculation on. Will ignore any commas, but must not have a currency symbol.
  • |start_year= (parameter 3), required, original year from which to base the inflation calculation on. Must be a year available in the chosen inflation index. As an exception to this, if the current year is specified and no end_year is specified, the template will output value unchanged, as it can be assumed an inflation of zero.
  • |end_year= (parameter 4), optional, reference year for which to calculate inflation. Must be higher (later) than start_year, but not higher than the highest (most recent) year available in the chosen inflation index, and will default to the highest (most recent) available year if omitted.
  • |r=digit sets the digits to which the value must be rounded. A negative value indicates rounding to an upper significant digit, and a positive value indicates a fractional digit including trailing zeros. Defaults to 0, i.e., without cents.
  • |fmt=c will insert thousands separator commas into the calculated value.
  • |fmt=eq will show an equivalent-to phrase, in the format, "equivalent to cursignend_value in end_year". Uses thousands separator commas.
    • |cursign= will set the currency symbol to be shown. Only functions when |fmt=eq is used. Can use advanced symbol formats, but can only precede the calculated value. Default is $.
    • |orig=yes will display the original value too, with the currency sign provided.

တူဝ်ယၢင်ႇ[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|KRW|100|2000}}155
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|DE|100|2000}}70
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|595|1982}}1804
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}}equivalent to $1,804 in 2022
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|800|1942|fmt=eq|r=-3}}equivalent to $14,000 in 2022
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|100|2010|2012|fmt=eq|r=2}}equivalent to $105.28 in 2012
  • Green tickY US$595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}})US$595 (equivalent to $1,804 in 2022)
  • Green tickY US$595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq|cursign=[[United States dollar|US$]]}})US$595 (equivalent to US$1,804 in 2022)
  • Green tickY $21 million (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|21|2005|r=2}} million in {{Inflation/year|US}})$21 million (equivalent to $31.47 million in 2022)
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|1|1209|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}equivalent to £1,499 in 2021
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|AU|100|2024|fmt=eq}}equivalent to $100 in 2024
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US|100|2024}} in {{Inflation/year|US}}$100 in 2022
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|100|1982|fmt=eq|orig=yes|cursign=£}}£100 (equivalent to £375 in 2021)

It is possible to use the template in incorrect ways without producing error messages. Please read the warnings and appropriate uses of this template at the beginning of the template description.

  • Red XN {{Inflation|UK|10|1971|fmt=eq}}equivalent to $150 in 2021 (Omitting the |cursign= parameter will show the $ symbol by default, which is the wrong currency symbol for British currency)
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|10|1971|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}equivalent to £150 in 2021
  • Red XN $595 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} today)$595 ($1,804 today) (Misleading time reference)
  • Red XN $595 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}})$595 ($1,804 in 2024) (Misleading time reference)
  • Red XN $100 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} adjusted for inflation)$100 ($1,804 adjusted for inflation) (Misleading time reference)
  • Green tickY $595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}})$595 (equivalent to $1,804 in 2022)
  • Green tickY $595 (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} in {{Inflation/year|US}})$595 (equivalent to $1,804 in 2022)
  • Red XN Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, making her worth ${{Inflation|US|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, making her worth $5 billion in 2022. (CPI is not for personal wealth of the wealthy – use GDP deflator instead)
  • Red XN Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to $5 billion in 2022. (CPI is not for personal wealth of the wealthy – use GDP deflator instead)
  • Green tickY Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US-GDP}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to $4 billion in 2021

Entering invalid parameters or omitting required parameters will result in an error message and categorization into Category:Pages with errors in inflation template.

  • Red XN {{Inflation}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index= (parameter 1), |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|abc}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|abc|€100|1980}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=abc (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|DE|€100|1980}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: NaN, check parameters for non-numeric data: |value=€100 (parameter 2).
  • Red XN {{Inflation|DE|€100|zzzz|zzzz|r=zzzz}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: NaN, check parameters for non-numeric data: |value=€100 (parameter 2), |start_year=zzzz (parameter 3), |end_year=zzzz (parameter 4) and |r=zzzz.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|1200|2025}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=1200 (parameter 3) is lower than the earliest available year (1850) in index "AU" and |end_year=2025 (parameter 4) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2005|2004}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=2005 (parameter 3) is greater than |end_year=2004 (parameter 4). (see the Limitations section below)
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2005|2025|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |end_year=2025 (parameter 4) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2024|2025|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |end_year=2025 (parameter 4) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2024|1905|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=2024 (parameter 3) is greater than |end_year=1905 (parameter 4).
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2025|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year=2025 (parameter 3) is greater than the latest available year (2018) in index "AU".

Tips & tricks[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

Currency conversion[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

Many datasets are currency agnostic, which means they don't convert between different currencies. Thus, if you wanted to know today's equivalent value of 1,000.00 Austrian schillings in 1960, entering {{Inflation|AT|1000|1960|r=2}} would provide a result (6550.14) still in schillings, not in euros.

Consequently, if you need a result in a currency other than the one in which the original value is stated, for now you must do the conversion manually, as in the following example which uses the defined conversion rate of 13.7603 schillings to one Euro:

  • Green tickY {{#expr:({{Inflation|AT|1000|1960|r=2}} / 13.7603) round 2}}476.02

Instead of manually inputting a conversion for the Euro from a national currency, it is possible to divide by {{FixedEuroRate}} instead.

Some datasets are not currency agnostic; check the sources for each dataset to determine this.

 တႃႇႁဵတ်း A currency conversion template to ease these conversion tasks is planned. This section will be updated accordingly once it's developed.

Non-decimal inputs[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

The template does not accept non-decimal inputs such as £sd; these must be decimalized beforehand. For example, if you wanted to know the value of three shillings and sixpence (3s 6d) Sterling in 1950 in 2018, you must convert to the appropriate decimal value (in this case £0.175) for use in the template:

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|GBP|0.175|1950|2018}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=GBP (parameter 1) not a recognized index.

For £sd specifically {{Pounds, shillings, and pence}} can be used to convert to decimal. For other non-decimal currencies, such as the old Indian rupee, templates can be made for decimalization upon request.

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|GBP|{{Pounds, shillings, and pence|s=3|d=6}}|1950|2018|r=0|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}equivalent to £6 in 2018
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|{{Pounds, shillings, and pence|s=10|d=6}}|1865|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}equivalent to £54 in 2021

Rounding[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

By default the values are calculated to the unit, as for all but very low values cents are undesirable. You can specify rounding with the |r= parameter which determines the number of decimals. To obtain cents use |r=2, but other values can be used, including negative ones: |r=-3, for example, will round to the nearest thousand, |r=-6 to the nearest million, and so on. It is advisable to avoid false precision; even if the start value is known to be exact, the template's result will not be because the inflation index tables are rarely accurate to more than about 1%, and a granularity of whole years is used.

Very large results[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

Very large results are expressed in scientific notation ("1.2E+14" instead of "120000000000000") which is normally not desirable. A workaround is to express the value to be inflated with fewer digits, adding a multiplier text such as "trillion" after the result, using the "Show preview" button as many times as needed, changing parameters until the best result is found:

  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1000000000000|1900|r=-11|fmt=c}}$27,100,000,000,000
  • Red XN ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000000|1900|r=-12|fmt=c}}$271,000,000,000,000
  • Red XN ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000|1900|r=-9|fmt=c}} thousand$271,000,000,000 thousand
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000|1900|r=-6|fmt=c}} million$271,000,000 million
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000|1900|r=-3|fmt=c}} billion$271,000 billion
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10|1900|fmt=c}} trillion$271 trillion

The following section provides an automated way of avoiding this trial and error scenario.

Format price[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

{{Format price}} is a template specifically designed to display price values, both big and small, in a readable way. For example, instead of showing the whole of a huge number such as "953,783,409,856.12", it would show it as "954 billion", while small numbers have their cents part appearing as expected, "1234.5" being properly shown as "1,235".

  • Green tickY ${{Format price|{{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000000|1900}}}}$271 trillion
  • Green tickY ${{Format price|{{Inflation|US-GDP|1000000|1990}}}}$1.86 million
  • Green tickY DM {{Format price|{{Inflation|DE|1000000|1957|1978}}}}DM 2.01 million
  • Green tickY £{{Format price|{{Inflation|UK-GDP|1000|1323}}}}£699,508

Citing inflation data sources[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

It's a good practice to provide a valid reference for the prices calculated with this template in articles where it's used. The template {{Inflation/fn}} was developed to ease this task. It accepts as its single parameter the same country codes used here, and will generate one or more appropriate footnotes. Typically, this is how a piece of text using it looks like:

  • In 1985 a unit cost on average $1,040. This is {{Inflation|US|1040|1985|fmt=eq}}.{{Inflation/fn|US}}

Resulting in this converted code (notice the footnote link at the end):

  • In 1985 a unit cost on average $1,040. This is equivalent to $2,830 in 2022.[46]

The footnote thus generated appears whenever {{reflist}} or <references /> is used in an article, usually in its "References" section. See below for the live example in this document's own References section, or click the above generated footnote to jump to it.

Limitations[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

  1. Currently it isn't possible to "de-inflate" a value to what it would have been in a previous year. If you need this functionality, please request it at the talk page. Adding it won't be difficult, but there's no point in doing so before someone actually needs it.
  2. Substitution isn't supported at all. Trying to {{subst:Inflation|...}} would only result in a long sequence of embedded parser code without any direct benefit. If you need to obtain an inflated price only once, please use the special ExpandTemplates page then copy the result and paste it at the desired location.

ၽိုၼ်ၵႅမ်မိုဝ်း ၽူႈၶူင်သၢင်ႈ[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

An inflation series represents templates in the following categories:

  • Template:Inflation/index
  • Template:Inflation/index/dataset
  • Template:Inflation/index/startyear
  • Template:Inflation/doc/index (Which is then displayed at Inflation/name/dataset as the documentation, and needs to refer to the original data source)

Modifications need to be made to:

Current subpages:

Pages with the prefix 'Inflation' in the 'Template' and 'Template talk' namespaces:

ငဝ်ႈငႃႇဢၼ်ၶဝ်ႈတၢင်းတိုဝ်း[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

ၶေႃႈမုၼ်းထႅမ်းပလဵတ်ႉ[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

ၶေႃႈမုၼ်းၸိူဝ်းၽၢႆႇတႂ်ႈၼႆႉ ပဵၼ် တူဝ်ထတ်းတႃႁၼ်(VisualEditor) ဢၼ်မီးတီႈ ဝီႇၶီႇၽီးတီးယႃးၼၼ်ႉ ယိူင်းဢၢၼ်း တႃႇဢဝ် ၶိူင်ႈၸိူဝ်းၼၼ်ႉ ၸႂ်ႉလႆႈတီႈ ဝီႇၶီႇၽီးတီးယႃးတႆးသေ ၸင်ႇလႆႈဢဝ် ပိူင် ၶေႃႈမုၼ်းထႅမ်းပလဵၵ်ႉ (TemplateData) ဢၼ်မီးတီႈ ဝီႇၶီႇၽီးတီးယႃး ဢိင်းၵလဵတ်ႈၼၼ်ႉ ႁဵတ်းဝႆႉပဵၼ် တီႈမၢႆတီႈတွင်းယဝ်ႉ။ ႁူမ်ႈဝႃႈ ပႆႇၸႂ်ႉၶိူင်ႈၸိူဝ်းၼၼ်ႉသေတႃႉ ပေႃးပဵၼ် ၵူၼ်းႁူႉလွင်ႈတႅမ်ႈပရူဝ်ႇၵရႅမ်ႇ (computer programming) ဢိတ်းဢွတ်းၵေႃႈ ႁႂ်ႈပေႃးႁၼ်လႆႈၸႅင်ႈလႅင်းလီၼႆသေ ၸၢင်ႈဢဝ်ၸႂ်ႉလႆႈ သၽေႃးတီႈၵႅပ်ႈမၼ်းလႆႈယူႇ။

Inflation

This template calculates inflation based on several inflation index data sets. Note that this template defaults to calculating the inflation of Consumer Price Index values: staples, workers' rent, small service bills (doctor's costs, train tickets). For inflating capital expenses, government expenses, or the personal wealth and expenditure of the rich, the US-GDP or UK-GDP indexes should be used, which calculate inflation based on the [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) for the [[United States]] and [[United Kingdom]], respectively.

Template parameters

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

Parameterၶေႃႈသပ်းလႅင်းTypeStatus
Indexindex 1

An index code for one of several available inflation indexes. One of AU, AU-road, BD, CA, DE, IN, JP, PH, PK, UK, UK-GDP, US, US-GDP, ZAR, and various others.

Example
US
Stringrequired
Valuevalue 2

Original price or value from which to base the inflation calculation on. Will ignore any commas.

Example
1000
Numberrequired
Start yearstart_year 3

Original year from which to base the inflation calculation on. Must be a year available in the chosen inflation index. As an exception to this, if the current year is specified and no 'End year' is specified, the template will output value unchanged, as it can be assumed an inflation of zero.

Example
1975
Numberrequired
End yearend_year 4

Reference year for which to calculate inflation. Must be higher (later) than 'Start year', but not higher than the highest (most recent) year available in the chosen inflation index, and will default to the highest (most recent) available year if omitted.

Example
2015
Numberoptional
Number of digitsr

Sets the digits to which the value must be rounded. A negative value indicates rounding to an upper significant digit, and a positive value indicates a fractional digit including trailing zeros. Defaults to 0.

Default
0
Example
1
Numberoptional
Formatfmt

"c" will insert thousands separator commas into the calculated value. "eq" will show an equivalent-to phrase, in the format, "equivalent to (cursign)(end_value) in (end_year)". Uses thousands separator commas.

Example
eq
Stringoptional
Currency signcursign

Sets the currency symbol to be shown. Only functions when Format "eq" is used. Can use advanced symbol formats, but can only precede the calculated value. Default is $.

Default
$
Example
Stringoptional

တူၺ်းပႃး[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

ဢၢင်ႈဢိင်[မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

  1. How recently depends on how the data set for each country is constructed, and on the internal tables being updated accordingly every January. Some data tables provide inflation data up to December 31, 2023, others up to roughly June-July 2023, and others yet up to December 31, 2022.
  2. 1864 to 1912: Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1998. Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Latin America, Appendix, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage, and Land Price in Argentina, 1864-1940 Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1853, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research, 1913 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1994 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  3. 1440 to 1799: Robert C. Allen, Prices and Wages in Vienna, 1439-1913 1800 to 2018: Gerald Hubmann & Clemens Jobst & Michaela Maier, 2020. A new long-run consumer price index for Austria (1800–2018), Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, issue Q3/20, pages 61-88.
  4. 1850-1899: McLean, I.W. (1999), Consumer Prices and Expenditure Patterns in Australia 1850–1914. Australian Economic History Review, 39: 1-28. For later years, Australian Consumer Price Inflation figures follow the Long Term Linked Series provided in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) 6461.0 – Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2011 as explained at §§3.10–3.11; this series comprises "from 1901 to 1914, the A Series Retail Price Index; from 1914 to 1946–47, the C Series Retail Price Index; from 1946–47 to 1948–49, a combination of the C Series Index, excluding rent, and the housing group of the CPI; and from 1948–49 onwards, the CPI." (3.10). Retrieved May 4, 2015
  5. Inflated values automatically calculated using the "3101 Road and bridge construction Australia" series provided in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) 6427.0 – Producer Price Indexes, Australia, Mar 2014: Table 17 Output of the Construction industries, subdivision and class index numbers. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  6. Bangladesh – Consumer price index, International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.[dubious]
  7. 1399 to 1849: Robert C. Allen, Prices and Wages in Antwerp & Belgium, 1366-1913 1850 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  8. 1820 to 1911: Guilherme Alexandre Tombolo, O PIB brasileiro nos séculos XIX e XX: duzentos anos de flutuações econômicas – Curitiba, 2013 1912 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  9. 1688 to 1923: Geloso, Vincent, A Price Index for Canada, 1688 to 1850 (December 6, 2016). Afterwards, Canadian inflation numbers based on Statistics Canada tables 18-10-0005-01 (formerly CANSIM 326-0021) Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted. Statistics Canada. and table 18-10-0004-13 Consumer Price Index by product group, monthly, percentage change, not seasonally adjusted, Canada, provinces, Whitehorse, Yellowknife and Iqaluit.
  10. 1501 to 1813: Roman Studer, Pascal Schuppli, Deflating Swiss Prices over the Past Five Centuries, Historical Methods, Summer 2008, Volume 41, Number 3. Afterwards, Switzerland inflation numbers based on FSO-EN to 2015, FSO-DE 2015-2021 CPI, Global index on all index bases. Federal Statistical Office. and table 18-10-0004-13 LIK, Totalindex auf allen Indexbasen.
  11. 1661-1805: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1807 : Guilherme Alexandre Tombolo, Evolución de los Precios en el Siglo XIX 1810 to 2006: 2007 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  12. 961-1359: Peter Lindert, China, rice prices 961-1910 (Liu) 1360 to 1729: Robert Allen, Jean-Pascal Bassino, Debin Ma, Christine Moll-Murata, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden Beijing prices 1738-1923 1924 to 1929: Yuru Wang, Urban Wholesale Price Change and Economic Growth in Modern China 1930 to 1948: Chang, K. (1963). The inflationary spiral; the experience in China, 1939-1950 [Cambridge]: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1949 to 1951: Burdekin, R.C.K., Wang, F. A Novel End to the Big Inflation in China in 1950 Economics of Planning 32, 211–229 (1999). 1952 to 1978: Gregory C. Chow, Peng Wang, The empirics of inflation in China, Economics Letters, Volume 109, Issue 1, 2010, ISSN 0165-1765. 1979 to 2019: National Bureau of Statistics of China, Consumer Price Index
  13. 1500 to 1850: Ulrich Pfister, 2010. "Consumer prices and wages in Germany, 1500 - 1850," CQE Working Papers 1510, Center for Quantitative Economics (CQE), University of Muenster. 1851-1882: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998. After 1883, German inflation numbers based on data available from the Deutsches Statistisches Bundesamt archive and GENESIS database.
  14. Kim Abildgren (2010) Consumer prices in Denmark 1502–2007, Scandinavian Economic History Review, 58:1, 2-24
  15. 1915 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998 1994 to 2018: World Bank Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) - Egypt, Arab Rep.
  16. 1276 to 1850: "The rise and fall of Spain (1270-1850)" (2013). The Economic History Review 66 (1): 1–37. Wiley. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.2012.00656.x.  1850 to 1936: "La paradisíaca estabilidad de la anteguerra: Elaboración de un índice de precios de consumo en España, 1830-1936" (in es) (2006). Revista de Historia Económica 24 (2): 333-382. Madrid: Universidad Carlos III. ISSN 0212-6109.  1936 to 1961: (1988) Índices de precios en España en el período 1913 - 1987. Madrid: Banco de España. ISBN 84-7793-007-4.  1961 to 2022: Consumer Price Index for Spain. International Monetary Fund.
  17. Eurostat, Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices: All Items for Euro area (19 countries) (CP0000EZ19M086NEST), retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, December 15, 2022. European Union, 1995-2016.
  18. Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  19. 1262 to 1789 Leonardo Ridolfi, The French economy in the longue durée: a study on real wages, working days and economic performance from Louis IX to the Revolution (1250–1789), Ridolfi, L. (2019). Six Centuries of Real Wages in France from Louis IX to Napoleon III: 1250–1860. The Journal of Economic History, 79(3), 589-627. 1798 to 1809: Mitchell, B. R. (Brian R.). (1975). European historical statistics, 1750-1970. New York: Columbia University Press, 1810 to 1903: Sauvy, Alfred. Variations des prix de 1810 à nos jours. Journal de la société française de statistique, Volume 93 (1952) , pp. 88-104 1904 to 2020: Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Coefficient de transformation de l'euro ou du franc d'une année, en euro ou en franc d'une autre année – Base 1998 – série arrêtée
  20. 1833-1913: South-Eastern European Monetary and Economic Statistics from the Nineteenth Century to World War II, published by: Bank of Greece, Bulgarian National Bank, National Bank of Romania, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, 2014, Athens, Sofia, Bucharest, Vienna. Afterwards, Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  21. 1947 to 1980: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices, afterwards Consumer Prices, Table E501 : Consumer Price Index at Commodity/Service Section/Group level.
  22. 1820 to 1919: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Appendix 3 Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for Indonesia Java 1820-1940, Outer Provinces 1878-1939, 1920 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  23. Bank of Israel - Data & Statistics - SeriesData.
  24. 1595 to 1872: Bob Allen, Prices and Wages in India, 1595-1930 1873 to 1919: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Appendix 2 Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for India 1873-1939 and Land Prices for the Punjab 1871-1939, 1920 to 1953: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1954 to 2023: Historic inflation India – CPI inflation, Inflation.eu, retrieved 8 July 2023 
  25. The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (Inflation Rate) (in Persian), Central Bank of Iran, retrieved 25 June 2020 
  26. Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  27. 1399-1859: Robert Allen, Consumer price indices, nominal / real wages and welfare ratios of building craftsmen and labourers, 1260-1913, Prices and Wages in Naples, 1474-1806, and Prices and Wages in Northern Italy, 1286-1914, 1861 to 1995 Istat, Coefficienti per tradurre valori monetari dei periodi sottoindicati in valori del 2019, 1995 to 2020: Istat, Indice dei prezzi al consumo per l'intera collettività
  28. 1868 to 1938: Williamson J., Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage and Land Rent Data for Japan 1831-1938, 1939 to 1945: Bank of Japan Historical Statistics Afterwards, Japanese Historical Consumer Price Index numbers based on data available from the Japanese Statistics Bureau. Japan Historical Consumer Price Index (CPI) – 1970 to 2014 Retrieved 30 July 2014. For between 1946 and 1970, from 昭和戦後史. Retrieved on 2015-01-24
  29. 1525 to 1770: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1771 to 1930: Challú, A., & Gómez-Galvarriato, A. (2015). MEXICO'S REAL WAGES IN THE AGE OF THE GREAT DIVERGENCE, 1730-1930. Revista De Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 33 (1), 83-122, 1931 to 1934: Estadísticas Históricas de México, 1935 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998.
  30. Historical Prices and Wages, International Institute of Social History, Value of the Guilder versus Euro
  31. Honningdal Grytten, Ola, 2018. "A continuous consumer price index for Norway 1492-2017," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 26/2018, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
  32. 1850-2017: Consumer Price Index, Annual Growth. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. 2018-2021: Consumers Price Index. StatsNZ.
  33. 1564 to 1824: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1825 to 1900: Leticia Arroyo Abad, 2016. Despegue frustrado: costo de vida y estándares de vida en el Perú durante el siglo XIX, Revista Economía, Fondo Editorial - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, vol. 39(78), pages 119-148. 1901 to 2017: Cesar Martinelli, Marco Vega La Historia Monetaria y Fiscal de Peru, 1960-2017: Experimentos Radicales de Politica, Inflacion y Estabilizacion
  34. 1899 to 1938: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for the Philippines 1899-1940 1949 to 1958: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998. Afterwards, Consumer Price Index,Inflation Rate and Purchasing Power of the Peso (national averages)
  35. Claims on central government, etc. (% GDP) (19 March 2021).
  36. 1409 to 1913: Robert C. Allen, Consumer price indices, nominal / real wages and welfare ratios of building craftsmen and labourers, 1260-1913, 1914 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 2008 to 2021: World Bank, Consumer price index (2010 = 100) 2008-2021
  37. 1672 to 1928: Pimenta, Carlos Explicação da Inflação em Portugal. ISEG. Lisbon: UTL. 1929 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  38. 1548 to 1675 A.G. Vinogradov, National economy of Russia 1515-2015, 1703 to 1913: Mironov, B. (2010). Wages and Prices in Imperial Russia, 1703-1913. The Russian Review, 69(1), 47-72. Retrieved May 21, 2021, 1914 to 1956: Efremov, Steven M., The Role of Inflation in Soviet History: Prices, Living Standards, and Political Change (2012), 1956 to 1984: CIA, USSR: Estimates of Personal Incomes and Savings 1985 to 1991: Stanley Fischer, 1994. Russia and the Soviet Union Then and Now, NBER Chapters, in: The Transition in Eastern Europe, Volume 1, Country Studies, pages 221-258, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. 1992: Granville, B. (1993). Price and Currency Reform in Russia and the CIS. Russian & East European Finance and Trade, 29(1), 3-67. Retrieved May 21, 2021, 1992 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  39. Edvinsson, R., & Söderberg, J. (2010). The evolution of Swedish consumer prices 1290-2008. In Exchange Rates, Prices, and Wages, 1277-2008 (pp. 412–452).
  40. M212931 - Consumer Price Index (CPI), 2019 As Base Year, Annual. Department of Statistics, Singapore (23 May 2023).
  41. 1820 to 1941: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for Thailand (Siam) 1820-1939, 1944 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1994 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  42. 1585 to 1938: Hakan Berument and Asli Gunay 1 (2007) Inflation Dynamics and its Sources in the Ottoman Empire: 1586–1913, International Review of Applied Economics, 21:2, 207-245, 1939 to 2021: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  43. 1903 to 1958: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1959 to 2021: Statistical Bureau of the Republic of China, Time Series of Consumer Price Indices in Taiwan Area
  44. UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series). MeasuringWorth. Retrieved on June 11, 2022
  45. United Kingdom Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth "consistent series" supplied in What Was the U.K. GDP Then?. MeasuringWorth (2018). Retrieved on February 2, 2020
  46. 46.0 46.1 1634–1699: McCusker, J. J. (1997). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States: Addenda et Corrigenda. American Antiquarian Society.  1700–1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States. American Antiquarian Society.  1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–.
  47. What Was the U.S. GDP Then?. MeasuringWorth (2023). Retrieved on January 1, 2023။ United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  48. South Africa – Consumer price index, International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.[dubious]
  49. 1906 to 1911: Williamson J. (1999), Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage and Land Rent Data for Korea 1906-1939 1912 to 1939: Mizoguchi, T. (1972). Consumer Prices and Real Wages in Taiwan and Korea Under Japanese Rule. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 13(1), 40-56. Retrieved May 21, 2021. Afterwards, consumer price index from Statistics Korea. Consumer Price Index by year. Retrieved 3 April 2018