လွင်ႈၸွႆႈထႅမ်:IPA/Arabic

လုၵ်ႉတီႈ ဝီႇၶီႇၽီးတီးယႃး ဢၼ်လွတ်ႈလႅဝ်းထၢင်ႇႁၢင်ႈ ၼၼ်ႉမႃး
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The chart below explains how Wikipedia represents Modern Standard Arabic pronunciations with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Wikipedia also has specific charts for Egyptian Arabic, Hejazi Arabic, Lebanese Arabic, and Tunisian Arabic. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ar}}, {{IPAc-ar}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters § Notes.

Wikipedia transcriptions for Arabic may be either more general and abstract (phonemic), using only the symbols in the IPA column, or more detailed and precise (phonetic), using the symbols explained in the notes.

See Arabic phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Modern Standard Arabic, and varieties of Arabic for regional variation.

IPA English
approximation
Arabic
letter/symbol
Usual
romanization
Letter

name

A–B
a[မၢႆတွင်း 1] cat in British English, only approx. in American English َ a, á, e -
[မၢႆတွင်း 2] No exact, longer far ـَا(ى at word end) ā, â, aa, a أَلِف (ʾalif)

الف مقصورة (ʾalif maqṣūrah)

aj[မၢႆတွင်း 3] /a/+/j/, my ْـَي ay, ai, ey, ei يَاء (yāʾ)
aw[မၢႆတွင်း 4] /a/+/w/, noun ْـَو aw, au وَاو (wāw)
b bee ب b بَاء (baʾ)
D
d dash د d دَال (dāl)
[မၢႆတွင်း 5] emphatic and pharyngealized /d/, no equivalent ض ḍ, dh ضَاد (ḍād)
jam ج[မၢႆတွင်း 6] j, ǧ, dj, g جِيم (jīm)
ð these ذ dh, ḏ ذَال (dhāl)
ðˤ[မၢႆတွင်း 5][မၢႆတွင်း 7] emphatic and pharyngealized [ð] ظ ظَاء (ẓāʾ)
F–H
f father ف f فَاء (fāʾ)
h hi ه h هَاء (hāʾ)
ħ hello, but pharyngeal ح حَاء (ḥāʾ)
I–K
i[မၢႆတွင်း 8] miss ِ i, e -
[မၢႆတွင်း 9] machine ـِي ī, ee, i يَاء (yāʾ)
j yes ي y يَاء (yāʾ)
k skin ك k كَاف (kāf)
L–N
l lease (Received Pronunciation) ل l لاَم (lām)
ɫ[မၢႆတွင်း 10] tool
m me م m مِيم (mīm)
n no ن n نُون (nūn)
q like cat, but further down to the uvula (uvular). ق q, g, ' قَاف (qāf)
r "tapped" or "trilled" r;
Spanish perro
ر r رَاء (rāʾ)
s see س s سِين (sīn)
[မၢႆတွင်း 5] emphatic and pharyngealized /s/, no equivalent ص صَاد (ṣād)
ʃ she ش sh, š, ch شِين (shīn)
T–W
t stick ت
(sometimes ة)
t تَاء (tāʾ)

تاء مربوطة (tāʾ marbūṭah)

[မၢႆတွင်း 5] emphatic and pharyngealized /t/, no equivalent ط طَاء (ṭāʾ)
θ think ث th, ṯ ثَاء (thāʾ)
u[မၢႆတွင်း 11] cook ُ u, o, ou وَاو (wāw)
[မၢႆတွင်း 12] boot ـُو ū, oo, ou, u وَاو (wāw)
w we و w وَاو (wāw)
X–Z
x Scots loch,
Spanish jota,
German Bach
خ kh, ḫ, ḵ خَاء (khāʾ)
ɣ Spanish fuego غ gh, ġ, ḡ غَيْن (ghayn)
z zoo ز z زَاي (zāy)
Other
ʔ The pause in uh-oh!;
Cockney butter; glottal stop
ء ʾ ' هَمْزة (hamzah)
ʕ no equivalent
(voiced pharyngeal fricative)
ع ʿ ' ` عَيْن (ʿayn)
θ see under T—W
ˈ [ˈkiːwi] كِيوِي ('kiwi') Means that the following syllable is stressed: /ˈʕarabiː/ عربي ('Arab').
ː [kiːs] كِيس ('sack') Means that the preceding vowel is long
[ˈdˤɑħ.ħæ] ضَحّى ('[he] sacrificed'),
[mʊˈdær.rɪsæ] مُدَرِّسَة ('teacher [f.]'),
[ræs.ˈsæːmæ] رَسَّامَة ('paintress'),
[kæð.ˈðæːb] كَذَّاب ('liar [m.]')
A geminated consonant never belongs to one syllable and is often broken with a stress.

Notes[မႄးထတ်း | မႄးထတ်းငဝ်ႈငႃႇ]

  1. Allophones of /a/ include [ɑ] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æ] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  2. Allophones of /aː/ include [ɑː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æː] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  3. In colloquial pronunciation, /aj/ may be realized as []~[ɛː]~[ej] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).
  4. In colloquial pronunciation, /aw/ may be realized as []~[ɔː]~[ow] may occur (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Emphatic consonants may be either pharyngealized or velarized and are accompanied with labialization (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Kaye 1997, p. 193–194).
  6. The letter ج represents [ɡ] in Egypt and [ʒ] in the Levant and the Maghreb (Al-Ani 2008, p. 598; Gairdner 1925, p. 23).
  7. The letter ظ represents either [ðˤ] or [], depending on the speaker's dialect ထႅမ်းပလဵၵ်ႉ:Harv.
  8. Allophones of /i/ include [ɪ]~[e] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /ɪ/ completely becomes /e/ in some other particular dialects.
  9. Allophones of /iː/ include [ɪː]~[ɨː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  10. [ɫ] occurs only in the word Allah: [ɑɫˈɫɑh] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 600; Kaye 1997, p. 196; Kaye 2009, p. 564).
  11. Allophones of /u/ include [ʊ]~[ɤ]~[o] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /u/ completely becomes /o/ in some other particular dialects.
  12. Allophones of /uː/ include [ʊː]~[ɤː]~[] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).

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